What is a stroke?

A stroke happens when there is a loss of blood flow to part of the brain. Your brain cells cannot get the oxygen and nutrients they need from blood, and they start to die within a few minutes. This can cause lasting brain damage, long-term disability, or even death.
If you think that you or someone else is having a stroke, immediately call an ambulance. Immediate treatment may save someone’s life and increase the chances for successful rehabilitation and recovery.

Watch a video by Dr. Abha Agarwal on Stroke

What are the types of stroke?

There are two types of stroke:

  • Ischemic stroke is caused by a blood clot that blocks or plugs a blood vessel in the brain. This is the most common type; about 80 percent of strokes are ischemic.
  • Hemorrhagic stroke is caused by a blood vessel that breaks and bleeds into the brain

Another condition that’s similar to a stroke is a transient ischemic attack (TIA). It’s sometimes called a “mini-stroke.” TIAs happen when the blood supply to the brain is blocked for a short time. The damage to the brain cells isn’t permanent, but if you have had a TIA, you are at a much higher risk of having a stroke.

Who is at risk for a stroke?
Certain factors can raise your risk of a stroke. The major risk factors include
  • High blood pressure. This is the primary risk factor for a stroke.
  • Diabetes.
  • Heart diseases. Atrial fibrillation and other heart diseases can cause blood clots that lead to stroke.
  • Smoking. When you smoke, you damage your blood vessels and raise your blood pressure.
  • A personal or family history of stroke or TIA
  • Age. Your risk of stroke increases as you get older.
There are also other factors that are linked to a higher risk of stroke, such as
  • Alcohol and illegal drug use
  • Not getting enough physical activity
  • High cholesterol
  • Unhealthy diet
  • Having obesity
What are the symptoms of stroke?
The symptoms of stroke often happen quickly. They include
  • Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm, or leg (especially on one side of the body)
  • Sudden confusion, trouble speaking, or understanding speech
  • Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes
  • Sudden difficulty walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination
  • Sudden severe headache with no known cause
An easy way to remember is FAST.

F = Facial Asymmetry
A = Arm weakness
S = Slurry Speech
T = Time is critical. Call an ambulance right away


A4 Clinics provides intense, science-based and technology-enabled recovery program to allow maximum possible recovery. We focus on your functional recovery. Our goal is to maximize independence in activities of daily living and best possible quality of life.

  • Upper extremity robotic rehabilitation
  • Non-invasive brain stimulation
  • Computerized balance & coordination training
  • Intense manual therapy to reduce paralytic deficit
  • Strength & movement therapy
  • Gait (walk) training
  • Constraint induced movement therapy
  • Mirror therapy
Stroke Recovery Tips
  • Recovery is always possible – even decades after stroke because the brain is capable of healing at any age and at any stage. So NEVER GIVE UP.
  • Repetition is the key to recovery.
  • Stay consistent in your exercise and training.
  • Strive for full recovery.
  • Get lot of good sleep.
  • Eat healthy.
  • Do POSITIVE VISUALIZATION. If you visualize movement in your body part, your brain responds to it by making positive connections. Positive thinking and positive mental attitude promote stroke recovery.
  • Be patient. Slow and steady wins the race
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